Thus, psychology is hindered by the desire of researcher’s to see what they want to see, and this has facilitated “dubious science, non-science, and even pseudoscience to take root and flourish in many quarters” (Lilienfeld, 2010, p. 282). Moore, J., (2011) Philosophy of science, with special consideration given to behaviorism as the philosophy of the science of behavior. Indeed, Carl Rogers developed client-centred therapy and was considered at one point the most influential psychologist in America (Elkins, 2008). In order to confirm whether psychology can fulfil the, PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE Henriques, G. R., (2004) Psychology defined.Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. Confirmation bias is against scientific ideals because it involves the tendency for academics to look for evidence consistent with their hypotheses and to ignore, deny, or alter evidence that is in contrast to them (Lilienfeld, 2010). Comparatively, behaviourism’s major strengths were that it was highly objective, was applicable to both humans and animals, and was highly replicable (Hjørland, 2005; Moore, 2011). Thus, the following work will discuss to what extent psychology should be considered a science. 15FRIDAY2020 can only be used on orders with a 14 day or longer delivery. Our brain function allows us to have these reactions, along with many other things that make up a person. Science encompasses all of our accumulated knowledge and discoveries about the universe. Costall, A., (2006) ‘Introspectionism’ and the mythical origins of scientific psychology. Researchers such as Wundt and Watson have worked hard to bring psychology into the world of scientific research and through the years have made a very good start but have they managed to achieve scientific criteria? Lilienfeld, S. O., (2010) Can psychology become a science? Zittoun, T., Gillespie, A., and Cornish, F., (2009) Fragmentation or differentiation: Questioning the crisis in psychology. In fact, most of the population doesn’t know what it means to study psychology. In summary, the extent to which psychology should be considered a science is a complex area of debate. There are five main approaches to psychology known as “schools of thought” that make assumptions about the nature of, The British Psychological Society states that ‘Psychology is the scientific study of people, the mind and behaviour’ (BPS). Another pertinent point is that not all areas of psychology adhere to strict methodological stipulations and are actually opposed to the idea of psychology being a science. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Therefore, in line with the hypothetico-deductive method cognitive psychologists develop precise theoretical hypotheses and then conduct well-controlled experiments in order to confirm or reject them (Gardner, 2008; Haig, 2005). It should be noted that behaviourism in its original form is now considered outdated and too simplistic to account for the complexity of human behaviour. Thus, empirical methods are used to obtain factual information that all can agree on and which is immune from the influence of any researchers (Hjørland, 2005). Promotion runs from 00:01am to 11:59pm (GMT/UTC) on the 27th November 2020. Elkins, D. N., (2008) Why humanistic psychology lost its power and influence in American psychology: Implications for advancing humanistic psychology. To answer this question I feel it is important to understand the definitions of psychology and science. I will outline the behaviourist approach, the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive approach, the humanistic approach and the biological approach. (Fuchs & Milar, 2002). Nonetheless, its focus on the processes of the mind and behaviour means that it should not ignore potentially valuable, yet subjective, areas of investigation. 4, pp. Bri Sands Oklahoma State University For the longest of time, scientists, therapists and doctors all wondered whether or not psychology is a science. Gardner, H., (2008)The Mind’s New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution. Is Psychology A Science Essay. No plagiarism, guaranteed! On the other hand, if the predictions are not supported by the data then this particular study is viewed as disconfirming the theory under question (Haig, 2005). Journal of Humanistic Psychology, vol. Personality and Individual Differences, vol. Psychology has been defined in different ways.Some people have defined psychology as an art.Other people have defined psychology as a science.Many text books define psychology as the science of mind and behavior.Psychology involves the study of human nature and/or behavior.Different opinions come from different perspectives. 104-115. For example, the humanistic psychology movement, which developed in the 1950s and 1960s partly as a reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviourism, emphasises the importance of an individual’s subjective way of thinking and personal perception (Elkins, 2008). The debate over whether psychology is a science, art, or both, makes logical sense when considering that its historical emergence was heavily influenced by two disciplines, one scientific (physiology), and the other, non-scientific (philosophy). PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE Psychology is the scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes. In addition, much of the research in psychology does not employ double-blind procedures, even in studies of a clinical nature where it would be advantageous to do so (Lilienfeld, 2010). Psychology slowly shifted from unproven mind psychology to the study of behaviour with revolutionary experiments in behaviour like Pavlovs dogs. Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology However, that definition is incorrect. To come to a vigorous conclusion on this subject we must take into recognition both sides of the argument, what is science, and weather Psychology meets the principles of. However, it is integral in this to debate to understand exactly the major features of a science, in order to judge if psychology is in […] Psychology is the scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes. Furthermore, the nature of empirical studies means that generalisations are made by studying one population which may not be representative of all groups (Hjørland, 2005). 2005. The late-eighteenth-century declaration that a true scientific study of the mind was not possible posed a challenge that was answered in the nineteenth century when the possibility, being that science helps many parts of our lives? Humanists acknowledge the importance of the therapeutic relationship and the focus on an individual’s strengths (Elkins, 2008). Before I had ever begun to ponder cognitive abilities, or understand the connections between Dopamine and schizophrenia, my concepts of psychology were shaped by the perverse world of popular culture. Nowadays the idea of psychology as a science seems so natural to us, but it was not always like this. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of However, it is integral in this to debate to understand exactly the major features of a science, in order to judge if psychology is in fact one. There have been various attempts at making psychology a scientific discipline in the past such as the movement from behaviourism into cognitivism. I will therefore examine whether it could be, Reflecting on Psychology as a Science WebMD, Inc., To be able to conclude if psychology is a science or not, we must first understand what a science is. Reference this. Economics and Philosophy, vol. For example, in studies looking at testosterone and aggression (Krahe, 2001), the link to science from psychology can be seen. To achieve this aim, evidence in support of psychology as a science will be considered and evidence against this supposition will be examined. It can be difficult to reconcile psychology with science when human behaviour varies across situations and over time. Psychology is commonly defined as ‘scientific’ study of human behaviour and cognitive processes. Essay Sample. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on Therefore, humanistic psychologists do not believe that psychology benefits from being (or trying to be) a science; rather psychologists should try to understand human behaviour from the perspective of the individual (Elkins, 2008). Is psychology a science? Evidence that provides support for the idea that psychology is a science will now be examined. 829-839. It has been argued that the cognitive approach replaced behaviourism as the dominant paradigm in psychology (Costall, 2006; Gardner, 2008). 1133 Words5 Pages. Psychology is a multi-faceted and wide-ranging subject that focuses on the study of the mind and behaviour (Henriques, 2004). According to writer, Whether psychology is a science or not has been a long running debate between psychologists and other scientists alike. In support of psychology as a science. It is also likely that a researcher can never be completely certain that their hypothesis is true because psychological processes occur in the mind and are not readily accessible.


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